This feature from the Heritage Foundation does not cover all the differences between conservatives and progressives, so let me share a brief observation. In a word progressive ideology is ungodly. They are on the wrong side of every moral issue and invariably oppose religious freedom. Generally speaking progressives comprise the far left of liberalism.
Their philosophy is really just the opposite of "progress." In my opinion, left to their devices America will cease to be a constitutional republic and free markets will be a thing of the past. Socialism will reign and instead of the utopia Socialists always promise the country, already suffering from the ill effects of big government, will sink into mutually shared poverty across the board.
May the Lord give us grace to hold back the influence of the ungodly in this country is my prayer.
Watch the video from the Heritage Foundation